For many families, child allowances are a significant addition to the budget. There are several types of payments. Some benefits are due to all young parents, and some require confirmation of certain statuses.
Types of child benefits
Currently, families with children can receive support from the state in the form of one-time or monthly benefits. Some of the payments are substantial, so young parents need to take care of their registration.
Financial assistance is provided from the very beginning of pregnancy. The main payments are made after the birth of the baby, and a number of benefits stop paying only when the child reaches 18 years of age. Depending on the form of calculation, benefits are divided into:
- insurance (from the Social Insurance Fund);
- social (from the funds of the Department of Social Protection of the Population).
Lump-sum child benefits
Working women have the right to receive the following types of benefits when they go on maternity leave:
- maternity allowance;
- allowance for women registered in the early stages of pregnancy.
In the first case, the amount of payment depends on the salary. The calculation is made by the accountant at the place of work. In accordance with the current legislation, wages and all additional income for the last 2 calendar years preceding going on maternity leave are taken into account. Payment is made immediately 70 days before delivery and 70 days after delivery (140 days in total). A woman should receive an amount calculated based on 100% of the average earnings.
There are established minimum and maximum values for this type of benefit. Since 2019, the amount paid cannot be less than 51,919 rubles. This is true for women with an income below the minimum wage or for those who got a job not very long ago. The maximum allowance is 301,000 rubles. There are also some clarifications. In case of complicated pregnancy, the benefit is paid not for 140, but for 156 calendar days, and in case of multiple pregnancies - for 194 calendar days. Accordingly, in the first case, the minimum is the amount of 57,852 rubles, and the maximum is 335,506 rubles. In the second case, the minimum is 71,944 rubles, the maximum is 417,232 rubles.
The allowance for women registered early in pregnancy is paid together with the maternity allowance. Its size is 655, 49 rubles. It does not depend on wages. Women who do not work can also get it, but for this they need to apply to the Social Insurance Fund on their own.
One-time benefits that can be received after the birth of a child include:
- federal lump sum for the birth of a child (16,759.09 rubles);
- regional lump sum for the birth of a child (different amounts of payments are established in each region);
- maternity capital (453,026 rubles)
- a one-time allowance paid upon adoption or transfer of a child to a family (17479, 73 - for all forms of placement and 133559, 35 for the adoption of a disabled child, children who are brothers or sisters, and children over the age of 7 years).
In some constituent entities of the Russian Federation, additional payments are provided for families with children. For example, in a number of regions, a lump sum is paid at the birth of the third and subsequent children in the family. These payments can be quite substantial. The regional lump-sum allowance for the first child in almost all regions of the Russian Federation is much less than for the second and subsequent children.
Maternity capital is a kind of allowance that is issued not in cash, but in the form of a certificate. You can spend it on improving the living conditions of the family, on the education of children or replenishment of the mother's pension savings. In some regions, annual payments from maternity capital are provided.
Not all government benefits are paid on a one-off basis. A family may receive some payments for a long period of time on a monthly basis. These include:
- allowance for caring for a child up to 1, 5 years old;
- childcare allowance for a child under 3 years old;
- allowance for children from low-income families (up to 18 years old);
- allowance for large families (up to 18 years old);
- regional manuals.
Benefits for caring for a child up to 1, 5 years old, working women begin to be paid immediately after the expiration of the sick leave for pregnancy and childbirth (70 days after childbirth for a normal non-multiple pregnancy). If a woman did not work before the birth of the child, she can count on payments from the first month of the child's life. In the first case, you need to contact the accounting department at the place of work and write a statement. In some regions, payments are made directly from the Social Insurance Fund. In the second case, the woman needs to contact the MFC or directly to the social service to assign monthly payments.
Working women are paid a monthly allowance of 40% of the average salary calculated for the previous 2 calendar years. The minimum allowance is 4,512 rubles, and the maximum is 26,152.33 rubles. If a young mother did not work before the birth of the child, she will be paid a monthly fixed amount of benefits - 3277, 45 rubles for the first child and 6554, 89 rubles for the second and all subsequent children. The benefit is no longer paid after the child reaches 1, 5 years of age. From 1, 5 to 3 years old, young mothers can count on a monthly allowance, the amount of which is fixed. It is only 50 rubles.
If the family's income does not exceed the subsistence level for the region, you can apply for a monthly payment from the federal budget. For each child, the amount of the payment is 250 rubles. For single mothers, this amount is 500 rubles. Separate payments are provided for families with 3 or more children. So, for example, after the birth of the third child, the family becomes large and you can count on an additional allowance, the amount of which is 1,000 rubles. With the birth of subsequent children, this amount will increase.
The list of benefits paid for children may change from year to year. New payments appear, most of the benefits are indexed. Some programs have a limited expiration date. So, for example, additional payments are provided for children born after January 1, 2018:
- allowance for the first child in a family born after January 1, 2018 ("Putin's payments");
- maternity capital allowance for children born after January 1, 2018.
These additional support measures are designed for families whose income level does not exceed 2 living wages. In order to use them, the mother and child must be citizens of the Russian Federation and reside on its territory permanently. The amount of the first child benefit depends on the region in which the family lives. It is equal to the regional cost of living. The allowance is paid monthly until the child turns 1, 5 years old. When a second child is born in a family, families with an income of no more than 2 living wages per person can receive the same payment, but it will be made from maternity capital funds.
There are also additional regional support measures for families with children. Basically, these are benefits for large families, both one-time and monthly. After the birth of a child, you must contact the MFC or the social service at your place of residence and get all the necessary information about additional payments.