The baby's head is born first and paves the way for the body. In rare cases, there are situations when the child before childbirth turns around with other parts of the body to the entrance to the small pelvis, and breech presentation occurs.
What is breech presentation?
Breech presentation refers to the position of the baby in the womb with the buttocks or legs down. The doctor can feel this position of the child through the lower part of the uterus. There are two types of pelvic subject: gluteal and leg subject.
With gluteal subject, the child turns to the entrance to the small pelvis with the buttocks, while his legs are bent at the hip joint and extended along the body. A mixed breech presentation may also occur, in which not only the buttocks, but also the legs are located towards the exit from the uterus.
The baby's foot presentation may be incomplete and complete. With a full breech presentation, both legs of the baby are located at the entrance to the small pelvis. If the presentation is incomplete, then only one leg, extended at the joints, is located directly at the exit from the uterus, and the second, bent at the hip joint, is located higher.
Variations in breech presentation depend on the position of the baby in the uterus. If the child turns around with bent knees, then a breech presentation occurs. Having turned across in the uterus, the child's shoulder is adjacent to the exit from the uterus, creating a breech presentation.
Causes of breech presentation
The most obvious cause of breech presentation is preterm labor. Up to 36 weeks, the baby was not yet ready to be born and therefore did not roll over.
Also, if the expectant mother is expecting more than one child, but several, the likelihood of a breech presentation is very high. Often, one of the twins takes the correct cephalic presentation, but the other can turn around.
A large or small amount of amniotic fluid can provoke a leg or breech presentation. When there is not enough water, the baby in the uterus becomes too cramped, and he cannot turn over. And in the case when there are a lot of waters, he simply begins to swim in them and does not have time to take the necessary position in time.
If the woman's body did not have time to recover from the previous birth, then the muscles of the uterus may not cope with the movements of the baby and will not be able to fix it in the desired position. In 80% of breech presentation, it is very difficult for gynecologists to determine its cause. It occurs in only 5 women out of 100.
Why is breech presentation dangerous?
Modern medicine has proven that there is no serious danger with breech presentation. Of course, natural childbirth is a little more difficult, but this has practically no effect on the health of the mother and child.
The most common danger that occurs with breech presentation is the baby's arms tipping back. But this happens in the event of an incorrect obstetric benefit. Childbirth should take place as naturally as possible so as not to harm the baby.