Parents rarely think about how their child learns to count. Most often this happens in games and various everyday situations. Even the youngest preschooler quickly learns that he had two cars, and now he was given another one, and there are three of them. Paying attention to this, you will give your child the first lessons on determining the composition of the number. It is especially necessary to teach this to an older preschooler or younger student if such situations in their life were not enough.
It is necessary
- - cards for the composition of the number;
- - many identical toys and other small items;
- - checkers or buttons of the same shape, but different colors.
In the first lesson, use toys or household items. These can be cubes, pencils, cups, spoons. The type and size do not matter, the objects should be just the same. Start with the number 2. Ask the child to put 1 spoon on the table and ask what needs to be done to make the spoons become 2. The older preschooler usually knows the answer, the younger child can be prompted. What numbers can be used to add the number 2? If the child does not immediately understand, ask a leading question.
Repeat the task with other items. The child should understand that the number 2 in any case consists of two units, regardless of whether he lays out spoons, pebbles or cubes on the table.
When the child begins to answer confidently, move on to the study of the number 3. Its composition can be represented in three ways. You can put 3 spoons one at a time, add one to two, or add two to one. You can lay out items in different ways. If you imagine the number 3 as consisting of three units, then pebbles or spoons can be placed at different distances from each other and even one pebble on top of another. Representing the same number as consisting of a pair of objects and one, put two together, and one at some distance.
Use checkers for practice. Invite your student to place 4 identical checkers on the board. And if you put 3 red and 1 black? You will also get 4 checkers. And if you take two of different colors, then there will still be four. That is, this number can be represented in several ways.
Get cards for the composition of the number. They can be bought or made. They are of several types, and it is better that they are of two types. The cut card consists of two halves. One depicts 1 item, the other - 1, 2, 3 and more of exactly the same items. The halves can be connected with a "+" sign, but the "plus" can be made separately. The second set is a set of pictures, which depict the same objects in one set, without any separation. When the child learns well to compare numbers and numbers, you can make the same cards with numbers. There can be several sets of them to represent each number in different ways.
Conduct classes regularly. Show your child a card that shows, say, 5 objects. Suggest picking up the pictures so that all of them also have the same number of apples or circles. Change roles periodically. Let the child also give you tasks, and you diligently perform it. Make mistakes sometimes, your student must learn to control your actions.
Do similar tasks with numbers. Show, for example, the number 9 and, in the same way as in the previous case, offer to find several options for its composition. Explain to your child that the larger the number, the more opportunities to compose it.