Number is the most basic concept in mathematics. At the same time, it is quite abstract, like any other mathematical quantity. How to explain the essence of numbers to a child?
It is necessary
- - didactic games: dominoes, cubes, loto, etc.;
- - counting sticks;
- - clock;
- - thermometer.
Start teaching a child between the ages of 1 and 3 years with positive numbers within ten. This can be done only by playing, as if "between times" for a walk and at home, teaching counting. The thinking of children at an early age is visual and effective. Feeling objects, performing some actions with them, the child comprehends the world. Use this period to keep your class fun and relaxed. Move from simple to complex, depending on the meaning the child has learned.
Count the objects around in the range of three, five, ten - starting from the steps in the kindergarten and ending with the number of washed mugs. At the same time, teach your baby to the concepts: more, less, more, few, one and several. Give your child small assignments related to counting: "Bring me, please, 4 pencils." Or: "Draw me 3 bears." Considering the pictures, fix the child's attention on the number of objects depicted. At the same time, show your child the numbers that correspond to a particular number.
Together, fun and educational activities between parents and their baby will contribute to a better understanding of numbers. A child under the guidance of an adult, even at an early age, is able to perform elementary mathematical operations with numbers: addition and subtraction.
Preschool children have visual-figurative thinking. Therefore, everything that the baby learns should be attracted visually. For this purpose, purchase various didactic games: dominoes, cubes, loto, etc. You can make geometric shapes of different colors, pictures with your own hands. Board games with chips and a playing field are very helpful in understanding numbers. They teach children not only correct counting, but also attentiveness. There you need to count how many steps you need to make a chip and perform small tasks: skip a move, etc.
You can also use squared notebooks. Ask your child a verbal instruction: draw 2 cells to the right, go up three cells. Or draw him a ready-made pattern that needs to be exactly repeated. At the same time, focus the child's attention on the number of cells in each element of the ornament. Drawing in the cells, the kid learns at the same time to count and trains the fine motor skills of the fingers. All these skills are very helpful for children when they enter school.
At the senior preschool age of 6-7 years, the foundations of logical thinking are formed in children. Counting sticks are practically irreplaceable material here. You can use them to come up with many games. For example, ask your kid to fold a square of 4 or 8 sticks. Then give the task to attach a triangle to one of the sides by adding the specified number of sticks. When the little researcher becomes comfortable with numbers within ten, the counting sticks will help him understand how many tens contains the number 100, which means a two-digit number, a three-digit number, how to add and subtract them. To do this, tie the sticks into a bundle in dozens.
At primary school age, helpers in learning the concept of a number can be such simple household items as a clock and a thermometer. It is better if they are made by hand from cardboard or from planks. Thus, they will not pose a danger to children. They can easily explain to the student even such a concept as the fractional part of a number. The easiest way to explain negative numbers to a child is on a thermometer. Because there are values below zero. But it is advisable to do this when the student has already clearly mastered the positive numbers.