There are two parts to maternity leave - prenatal and postnatal. Many people confuse maternity leave with parental leave. These are two different concepts, although the first vacation can smoothly flow into the other, which most often happens in practice.
What is maternity leave
Maternity leave is understood as the leave that is granted to a pregnant woman before and after childbirth. It is divided into prenatal and postnatal periods. The first is necessary for her to rest, gain strength and prepare for the appearance of the baby, and the second - to recuperate after childbirth.
To obtain maternity leave, you must provide a certificate of temporary disability ("sick leave") at the place of study or work. A pregnant woman should receive it where she is registered - in an antenatal clinic or in a private medical center. The latter must be licensed to provide services to pregnant women and issue "sick leave".
When to go on maternity leave
According to the Labor Code of Russia, a woman can go on maternity leave for a period of 30 weeks if she is expecting one baby, and at 28 weeks if there are two or more children. With a strong desire and good health, a woman can refuse the decree and continue to work as usual until the very birth. However, at any time she has every right to go on maternity leave.
The duration of the decree for singleton pregnancy and childbirth without complications is 140 days (70 days before the birth of the baby and the same after). In the event of complications during childbirth, the leave is increased by 16 days and is 156 days (70 days before delivery and 86 days after). An additional "sick leave" in this case is issued by the maternity hospital upon discharge. In the case of multiple pregnancies and the birth of two or more children, the duration of the decree is 194 days (84 days before delivery and 110 days after). There are privileged categories of citizens (living in the territory affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (resettlement zone) and others prescribed in the law), which also increased the term of the decree.
In the event that childbirth occurs on maternity leave, but earlier than planned, the vacation itself is not reduced. It's just that the number of "premature" days is added to the days after delivery. If a woman has had childbirth even before she had time to go on maternity leave, she is issued a sick leave for a period of 156 calendar days from the date of birth.
The maternity leave itself is paid at the rate of 100% of the monthly salary. The payment is made once - at the time of the woman's leave on vacation. After graduation, you can take parental leave or go to work. If you leave for work prematurely (before the end of the decree), the sick leave is closed. In this case, the accounting department of the enterprise must recalculate it.