If you notice that something is not working out for your child, that he is afraid of difficulties, is reluctant to make contact with people, then this is a cause for concern. The child is not confident in himself and needs help. Self-improvement is a difficult business, often requiring outside help.
Ideally, a child should develop adequate self-esteem and self-confidence from infancy. By the way, overestimated self-esteem can do a disservice - excessive self-confidence can be dangerous. First of all, only parents who are self-confident can have a confident child. Shyness, weakness, fear of trials and difficulties - the child feels all this very subtly, and then takes over from mom and dad. The parent should be the authority for the child, but false authorities will only spoil the situation. Love your child, but do not smother him with your love and unnecessary care. Also, do not deprive the child of love and affection, do not be too strict with him. Upbringing is upbringing, and if a child is guilty, he deserves punishment, and if he did something good, he achieved success - praise.
With regard to successes, then they must be closely monitored and not overlooked, but not over-praised. If a child gets an A, has mastered a new hobby, or won a competition, do not be afraid to praise him. If he makes a mistake, don't give him up. Everyone has the right to make mistakes. Point to it and help fix it, do everything to prevent it from recurring.
The golden rule of pedagogy is to avoid clichés and labels. The child received a deuce - this does not mean that he is a poor student. Fought with the guys in the yard - does not mean that he is a fool. All these words become attached to the child, stick, and eventually he begins to correspond to them. Tell your child that he is lazy but not lazy. The cliché is the cross. You must always believe that the child will succeed.
Teach your child to communicate with people. Self-confidence develops in communication, in conversations. If from childhood a person is shy, shy, afraid of negative attitudes, ridicule, then in the future he will not be able to make new acquaintances and fully communicate with others. Which can be a big hindrance in life. Encourage the child to communicate with peers, if he quarreled with someone, try to advise a constructive way out of the situation, teach him to find a compromise.
Don't compare your child to other children. No phrases are needed: "Here is Petya a good boy, he is studying, he helps his mother, and you!" Petya is Petya, he has his own parents, and your child is an independent person who does not need comparisons.
Help your child achieve goals, but do not achieve them for him. The child should feel that he himself has achieved his goals, then over and over again he will be more and more confident in himself.
Try to convince the child that if he took up some business, he needs to be brought to the end. Abandoned, unfinished business develops a sense of inability to do something, weakness, worthlessness.