Adults sometimes do not even think that they are using mathematical concepts in speech. They calmly talk about the area of an apartment or land plot, without even thinking that the child may not understand this. Meanwhile, a child will need the concept of area when studying geometry, physics, geography and a number of other sciences.
It is necessary
- - White paper;
- - colored paper;
- - pencil;
- - ruler;
- - the cloth:
- - furniture;
- - country cottage area;
- - household items.
- - garden tools.
Teach your child to measure different objects. If the process does not appeal to him by itself, come up with practical tasks or create play situations. For example, ask him to find out if the table that you have been planning to take out there will pass through the country gate. To do this, you need to know the dimensions of the table and wicket. Explain that the zero mark should match the corner of the table and the end of the post that defines the wicket. Invite your child to write down the results and compare them. He will do it with ease if he already knows how to count.
Ask your assistant if there is enough space for a table in the corner where you decide to put it. Say that for this you need to know the area of the table itself and the space allotted for it in the country. You already know one size, but is it enough? Most likely, the child himself will understand that you need to know not only the length, but also the width of the table. Invite him to measure it and write down the result.
Invite your child to draw an area on the floor in the room where the table will fit. Let him do it with regular chalk. As a result, you will have a rectangle that occupies the same area on the floor as the table. Explain that area is what is inside the drawn line. It can be counted.
Show how the area is calculated. To do this, each side must be divided into equal segments - for example, 1 cm each. This can be imagined, or you can cut the same exact square from graph paper. Show your student the easiest way to calculate the area of a square or rectangle. To do this, you need to multiply the lengths of its sides. If the figure is not too large, the child can check the result by counting the small squares.
Explain that you measured the length and width with a regular ruler or tape measure. Pay the child's attention to the fact that the divisions are there every 1 cm. With a ruler with exactly the same divisions, you measured the width of the object. You divided the resulting shape into small 1cm squares. Such a square is called a square centimeter. There are also square decimeters, meters and kilometers. For now, these names will be enough for the child.
It is possible to explain what an area is on other subjects as well. For example, tell your child that you want to sew a scarf of a certain size, but are not sure if the remaining piece of fabric from the dress is enough. Invite your child to draw a strip on paper that matches the size of the scarf. What is inside the lines is called the area. Have your assistant cut a strip and place it on the fabric. Explain how to calculate the area without a pattern.
Use didactic games. Cut out a rectangle from cardboard, and from colored paper - several smaller geometric shapes. Ask the child to answer whether it is possible to place all of them on the large card or only part of them. The condition for such a game exercise should be that the figures cannot be tried on, but everything must be determined in advance. Invite your child to measure them, and then determine the area that each figure will occupy on the card.