Usually, preschoolers learn math concepts easily and naturally. There are plenty of situations in everyday life when you need to compare something in size, add or multiply. However, there are also situations when parents need to explain something to the baby or specifically create a play situation when the child himself will figure out how this or that action is being performed and what should be the result.
- - any identical small items;
- - any products that can be divided into parts;
- - cards or cubes with numbers;
- - items of different sizes;
- - measuring instruments.
Teach your child to compare objects in different ways. A two-year-old can already distinguish a square from a circle, or both from a triangle. This knowledge will greatly facilitate his study of geometry. If you show other geometric shapes and teach you how to analyze the shape of various "irregular" objects, it will be much easier for the kid to draw them later.
It is very important to teach how to compare the quantities of objects. At the first stage, you don't need to count anything. Teach your child to distinguish between one and many. If there is one candy in the vase, then only one person will get it, and if there is a lot, you can treat mom, dad, grandparents, and even all the guys in the yard.
Create several play situations when the child needs to determine which group has more objects, which has fewer, and which has the same number. For example, you can ask him to set the table. He already roughly knows where someone is sitting. Let him put plates for all family members, but give more or less spoons or forks than necessary. If there are not enough spoons, it means that there are fewer of them than there are plates. An extra fork left? This means there are more forks.
Start with addition to learn math. Give your child one object - for example, a balloon. Ask how many balls he has. What if you buy another one? There will be two balls, and this is more than one. Repeat this exercise with different objects so that the child understands that you can count balls, cubes, cars, carrots, and even bones in the abacus. At first, try to choose the same items. Then you can ask the question, how many items are on the table. But by this point, the child should already understand, they ask him to count some specific things or objects in general.
The inverse of addition is subtraction. It can also be explained visually. There were five people sitting at the table, one left for work - how much is left? Continue playing exercises with blocks and puppets.
Build houses from cubes and put tin soldiers there. Make the house not enough for one soldier. Why did it happen? Because there are more soldiers than houses. Ask your child to count both items.
Start learning numbers. Explain to the kid that the number of any objects is indicated on the letter with a certain icon. Give him several identical objects, ask them to count and show what digit this number represents. Then give the same number of other items and also ask to count. The card will have the same icon, despite the fact that soldiers were counted the first time, and cars the second. Show the kid how the familiar signs of arithmetic operations are indicated in the letter. Offer to create an example yourself. For example, there were five cars in the yard, two left. How will it look on the cards? And if there were five carrots, and two of them were eaten by a rabbit - what happens? The child must understand that numbers can represent any objects.
Multiplication is best explained in terms of the familiar addition action.If you have two apples, add two more to them, and then another - how many will turn out? Ask your child how many times have you taken two apples. Tell us that if you take the same number of items several times, then you can count them much faster. It is enough to multiply the number of apples that was at the very beginning by the number of times the apples were added. In this case, the very first time is also considered.
To explain the division, prepare as many of the same items that you can divide equally among all family members. The child already knows the concept of "the same amount". Invite him to count the items, and then give them to all family members so that they all have two candies or four balls.
A preschooler can also learn simple fractions. To do this, you need a watermelon, apple, orange, or something else of the same kind. You have one apple. There are two of you, and each wants to get him some. What to do so that no one is offended? You can cut the apple into two equal parts, then everyone will get half of it. In the same way, you can divide it so that both dad and grandmother will be enough.